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What is the role of the central bank in determining forex rates in Pakistan?

by admin   ·  March 7, 2024   ·  


The central bank plays a crucial role in determining forex rates in Pakistan. As the regulatory authority responsible for managing the country’s monetary policy, the central bank actively intervenes in the foreign exchange market to maintain stability and influence the value of the Pakistani Rupee (PKR). In this article, we will explore the role of the central bank in determining forex rates in Pakistan.

1. Monetary Policy

The central bank’s monetary policy decisions have a direct impact on forex rates. By adjusting key interest rates, such as the policy rate or discount rate, the central bank influences borrowing costs, inflation, and the attractiveness of the PKR to foreign investors.

If the central bank raises interest rates, it can attract foreign capital seeking higher returns, strengthening the PKR and potentially lowering forex rates. Conversely, if the central bank lowers interest rates, it can stimulate domestic borrowing and consumption, potentially leading to a depreciation of the PKR and higher forex rates.

2. Foreign Exchange Reserves

The central bank manages foreign exchange reserves, which are assets held in foreign currencies. These reserves act as a buffer to stabilize the PKR in times of market volatility or external shocks.

If the central bank faces pressure on the PKR due to excessive demand or speculative attacks, it can use its foreign exchange reserves to intervene in the market. By buying or selling foreign currencies, the central bank can influence the supply and demand dynamics, thereby impacting forex rates.

3. Exchange Rate Management

The central bank plays a pivotal role in managing the exchange rate of the PKR. It sets a target exchange rate or a managed float system, where the central bank intervenes to maintain a specific range for the currency’s value.

If the PKR is overvalued, the central bank may sell its foreign exchange reserves and buy PKR, increasing the supply of foreign currencies and weakening the PKR. Conversely, if the PKR is undervalued, the central bank may buy foreign currencies and sell PKR to strengthen the currency.

4. Market Interventions

In addition to managing interest rates and foreign exchange reserves, the central bank can directly intervene in the forex market to influence forex rates. It can buy or sell foreign currencies in large volumes to stabilize the PKR or address any imbalances in the market.

Market interventions by the central bank can help to manage excessive volatility, prevent sharp currency fluctuations, and maintain stability in the forex market.


The central bank plays a vital role in determining forex rates in Pakistan. Through its monetary policy decisions, management of foreign exchange reserves, exchange rate management, and market interventions, the central bank actively influences the value of the PKR. Understanding the role of the central bank is crucial for investors, traders, and policymakers to navigate the forex market effectively.

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