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How does the central bank affect the forex rates in Pakistan?

by admin   ·  March 7, 2024   ·  


The central bank plays a crucial role in determining and influencing forex rates in any country, including Pakistan. In Pakistan, the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) is responsible for formulating and implementing monetary policies that affect the value of the Pakistani Rupee (PKR). This article explores the various ways in which the central bank affects forex rates in Pakistan.

1. Monetary Policy

The central bank’s monetary policy decisions have a direct impact on forex rates. By adjusting key policy rates, such as the benchmark interest rate, the central bank can influence borrowing costs and the availability of credit in the economy. Changes in interest rates can attract or discourage foreign investors, affecting the demand for the local currency.

If the central bank raises interest rates, it can make the local currency more attractive to foreign investors seeking higher returns. This increased demand strengthens the currency and lowers forex rates. Conversely, if the central bank lowers interest rates to stimulate economic growth, it may weaken the currency and increase forex rates.

2. Foreign Exchange Reserves

The central bank’s management of foreign exchange reserves also impacts forex rates. Foreign exchange reserves are assets held by the central bank, primarily in the form of foreign currencies. These reserves are used to stabilize the currency and intervene in the foreign exchange market when necessary.

If the central bank has ample foreign exchange reserves, it can intervene by buying or selling currencies to influence their value. For example, if the PKR is depreciating, the central bank can sell foreign currencies and buy PKR, increasing its demand and strengthening the currency. This intervention can help stabilize forex rates and manage volatility.

3. Exchange Rate Policies

The central bank formulates exchange rate policies that determine the exchange rate regime for the country. In Pakistan, the SBP follows a managed float exchange rate regime, which allows the PKR to float freely but with occasional interventions by the central bank to maintain stability.

Through its exchange rate policies, the central bank aims to strike a balance between promoting export competitiveness and maintaining price stability. By managing the exchange rate, the central bank can influence forex rates and support the country’s trade balance and economic objectives.


The central bank plays a crucial role in shaping forex rates in Pakistan. Through its monetary policy decisions, management of foreign exchange reserves, and exchange rate policies, the central bank can influence the value of the Pakistani Rupee. Understanding the central bank’s actions and their impact on forex rates is essential for individuals and businesses engaged in foreign exchange transactions. Monitoring the central bank’s policies and economic indicators can help stakeholders make informed decisions and manage currency-related risks effectively.

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